Sperm Freezing: The procedure to preserve sperm cells is known as sperm freezing or sperm banking. It is used for sperm donation where the couple wants to go for IVF at different place or time or in cases wherein there are options for the couple to have children in future too. In males with oligospermia where the sperms are extracted using the technique TESA/TESE the sperms are stored for future purpose so that there is no need to undergo the surgical process again. Sperms from the sperm bank are available for the patients suffering from genetic disorder and azoospemia.
Egg Freezing/Egg bank: Fertility declines rapidly after the age of 35 in women. Young women can freeze their eggs to have children in later age or females who have to undergo chemotherapy for cancer treatment may freeze their eggs before radiation. Menopausal females or those suffering from some genetic disorders may obtain eggs from the egg bank and can have children.
Embryo Freezing: Preservation of embryos at subzero temperatures (-196 degree Celsius) is known as embryo freezing or cryopreservation of embryos. In the process of stimulation in IVF procedure many embryos are formed and only 2-3 embryos are transferred in the first cycle. The left over embryos are stored for future purpose. If the couple wants to have children after the successful completion of first cycle, these can be used, or if due to some reasons the first cycle fails then these embryos are utilized in the second cycle. Controlled-rate and slow freezing, also known as slow programmable freezing is used to avoid extracellular and intracellular ice formation which is lethal for the health of embryos.