Donation also known as third party reproduction is a ray of hope for the childless couples who are unable to produce their biological child. Donor program may vary according to the medical problems of the infertile couple ranging from egg donation, sperm donation to embryo donation. When self cycle treatment fails or there are problems with the couple then IVF with donation is a boon. Donation can be of egg, sperm or embryo depending on the need of the patient.
In egg donation , women of less than 33 year of age are screened for few test and then their eggs are retrieved with their consent . These eggs are then fertilized with the sperms of the male partner of the recipient woman. The eggs after fertilization are placed in the uterus of the recipient woman.
Indication for oocyte donation
- Patients who have and multiple cycle of IVF or ICSI and have still failed to conceive
- Women after the age of 40 tend to have low ovarian reserve and poor quality eggs
- Elderly or menopausal women
- Patients Suffering from severe endometrioses and tuberculosis produce poor quality eggs
- Women suffering from PCOS and Ovarian cysts can be benefited with egg donation with egg donation
- Premature Ovarian failure
- Inherited genetic disorder
Donors should be healthy and have passed the medical and psychological examination , screening for STD’s and absence of HIV . The blood group of the donor Should be noted and should also be tested For HIV, HBsAg, HCV and VDRL . The identity of the recipient shall not be made known to the donor and vice versa.
The donor should complete a medical questionnaire that details their sexual personal and family medical history
Sperm donation is an option for couple with severe male infertility. If sperm cells are found in testicles with TESA method the couple can go for sperm donation . Sperm donors are traditionally anonymous and their identity is not disclosed to the couple
Eligibility Criteria For Sperm Donor
The donor should be screened for HIV, HbsAg and anti HCV and the report should be negative. No sperm donor can produce a fresh sample for donation. Only frozen –thawed sperms are allowed to use. A sample is frozen and stored for six months, after which the HIV test of the donor is repeated. All sperm donors, anonymous and directed are asked to provide detailed information about their personal habits, education, hobbies & interests. Donor should than 40 years of age and should have children of their own.
Indications for sperm donation
- Obstructive azoospermia: Congenital absence of vas deferens or vasectomy
- Non obstructive azoospermia: Primary testicular failure or secondary testicular failure due to radiation treatment or chemotherapy
- Ejaculatory dysfunction or if the male is a carrier to genetic disorder
- Severe oligospermia or seminal fluid abnormality
Embryo donation is a process in which the embryo formed from IVF procedure of the already conceived patient are transferred in the uterus of infertile woman. The process is done with the permission of the genetic parents to help other woman or couple to have successful pregnancy.
The genetic parents donate the embryos to the embryo bank or fertility clinic where they are cryopreserved until a carrier is found. The resulting child is considered the child of the woman who gives birth & not the child of the donor.
Indications for embryo donation
- Couples having difficulty in conceiving with own eggs & sperms
- Unfavorable medico-genetic prognosis
If poor quality embryos are repeatedly produced and their transfer results in no pregnancy.